- Official Country Name: Cộng hòa Xã hội Chủ nghĩa Việt Nam, Socialist Republic of Vietnam，Vietnam
- Location: Southeast Asia
- Capital: Hanoi
- Area Code: +84
- Time Zone: UTC+7
- Population: 92.7 million
- Area (km²): 329,556
- Languages: Vietnamese
- Major Tourism Cities/Places: Ho Chi Minh City, Haiphong, Da Nang, Hue
The Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Cộng hòa Xã hội Chủ nghĩa Việt Nam), referred to as "Vietnam", is a socialist country in Asia. Vietnam is located in the east of the Indochina Peninsula, bordering China in the north, bordering Laos and Cambodia in the west, and facing the South China Sea in the east and south, with a coastline of more than 3260 kilometers. With an area of about 330,000 square kilometers, Vietnam is a multi-ethnic country dominated by the Kinh nationality.
History of Vietnam
Vietnam has a long history. According to legend, the first country in Vietnam Wen Lang (later renamed Ou Luo) was established during the Bronze Age. In the 10th century AD, the Vietnamese people finally ended the rule of the northern feudal dynasty and established an independent country called the Dai Viet Kingdom. Historically, northern Vietnam has long been a Chinese territory, and broke away from China to establish an independent state in 968. Since then, it has experienced many feudal dynasties and continued to expand southwards, but they are all Chinese feudal states.
In 1010 AD, the capital was moved to Thang Long (now Hanoi). Since then, the Great Vietnamese have entered a long era of independence. It was not until 1884 that the French invaders occupied all Vietnamese territory. After the mid-19th century, it gradually became a French colony.
After the August Revolution in 1945, Ho Chi Minh announced the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, which was renamed the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1976. In 1986, Vietnam adopted the reform and opening-up policy. In 2001, the 9th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam decided to establish a socialist market economic system. The Vietnamese Communist Party is the only legal ruling party in the country. Vietnam is also a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
Vietnam is divided into 58 provinces and 5 municipalities (Can Tho City, Da Nang City, Haiphong City, Hanoi City, Ho Chi Minh City).
Vietnam is located south of the Tropic of Cancer and belongs to a tropical monsoon climate, with high temperature and rain. The average annual temperature is around 24°C, and the average annual rainfall is 1500-2000 mm. The north is divided into spring, summer, autumn, and winter; the south has two distinct seasons of rain and drought. The rainy season is from May to October in most areas, and the dry season is from November to April of the following year.
Vietnam's climate can be divided into two distinct climate regions.
1. North: The provinces north of Hai Van are located in a tropical monsoon climate zone with four distinct seasons of spring, summer, autumn and winter. It is affected by northeast and southeast winds from Asian land and has high humidity.
2. South: In the provinces south of Hai Van, its tropical climate is relatively mild, the four seasons are hot and the season can be divided into two seasons of the dry season and the rainy season, due to less influence of the monsoon.
3. At the same time, due to the different topography and structure, Vietnam has other microclimate regions. Some places have a temperate climate, such as Sapa in Lao Cai Province, and Dalat in Lam Dong Province; some show a continental climate, such as Lai Chau Province and Son La Province.
Vietnam is a multi-lingual and multi-ethnic country. There is a total of 54 nationalities officially recognized and announced. Vietnamese is the official language of Vietnam. About 87% of Vietnamese speak Vietnamese. In Vietnam, the popularity of English is generally low, and only service personnel in attractions, hotels, and large shopping venues can use English to help. Travel to Vietnam, it is best to be able to download translation software.
There are 90 airports of various sizes in Vietnam, 15 of which are civil airports. International airports include Noi Bai International Airport (Hanoi City), Da Nang International Airport (Da Nang City), Tan Son Nhat International Airport (Ho Chi Minh City), Cat Bi International Airport (Hai Phong City), Cam Ranh International Airport (Khanh Hoa Province), Lien Khuong International Airport (Lam Dong Province) and Phu Bai International Airport (Hue City). Tan Son Nhat International Airport is the largest airport in Vietnam, and the airport is 40 kilometers away from the city. Noi Bai International Airport the second largest airport in Vietnam, 45 kilometers away from the Hanoi.
The Vietnam Railway runs through the north to the south, connecting Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. As the transportation artery of Vietnam, it passes through tourist attractions such as Hue, Da Nang and Nha Trang. Hanoi is a train hub city in Vietnam, from here there are trains to all parts of the country.
The train number of the Vietnam Railway is from S1 to S16. The odd number is from Hanoi to Ho Chi Minh City, and the even number is from Ho Chi Minh to Hanoi. The smaller the number, the fewer bus stops; the shorter the travel time, and the more expensive the ticket.
Vietnam Railway Company Website: www.vr.com.vn
Vietnamese dong (₫) is the official currency of Vietnam. Subsidized units are Hao and Xu: 1 dong =10 hao =100 xu. Due to the small face value, it is rarely used. The issuance of currency is the responsibility of the State Bank of Vietnam. The international organization for standardization has designated its standard code name VND.
- Symbol: ₫
- issuing bank: State Bank of Vietnam
- Subunit: hào, xu
- Banknotes: ₫10,000, ₫20,000, ₫50,000, ₫100,000, ₫200,000, ₫500,000
- Coins: ₫200, ₫500, ₫1000, ₫2000, ₫5000
The exchange rate between VND and other currencies are as below:
1 AUD≈16225 VND; 1 CAD≈17317 VND; 1 CNY≈3284 VND; 1 EUR≈26252 VND;
1 GBP≈29531 VND; 1 JPY≈212 VND; 1 USD≈23255 VND
Vietnam is not a tipping country, and locals are not used to tipping. But with the influx of more Europeans, some tourist cities are slowly starting to accept tips from tourists. Tipping is not mandatory in Vietnam, but small gratuities for great service are very much appreciated.
- Tet Nguyen Dan: The first day of the first lunar month
- Tet Hung Vuong: The tenth day of the third lunar month
- Southern Vietnam Liberation Day: April 30 (1975)
- Vietnam National Day: September 2 (1945)
- Ho Chi Minh's Birthday: May 19 (1890)
Vietnam is rich in tourism resources. Because of its narrow and long terrain, Vietnam reflects different customs and views from south to north. There are breathtaking mountain sceneries, stunning beach sceneries, French flair buildings, and 8 UNESCO world cultural and natural heritage.
♦ UNESCO World Heritage
As of 2020, there are 8 world heritage sites in Vietnam, as follows:
Natural heritage: Halong Bay, Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park
Cultural heritage: Complex of Hue Monuments, Hoi An Ancient Town, My Son Sanctuary, Imperial Citadel of Thang Long, Citadel of the Ho Dynasty, Trang An Landscape Complex (cultural and natural dual heritage)
♦ Best Time to Travel in Vietnam
Vietnam is divided into a dry season and a rainy season. The dry season is from January to April, and the climate is dry. The dry season is also divided into hot season and cool season, hot season is from March to April, and cool season is from November to February. November to February is the best time to visit Vietnam.
Best Places to Travel in Vietnam
Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam, an industrial and cultural center, as well as a historical capital with a history of more than 1,000 years. Hanoi's rich historical relics and places of interest have earned it the reputation of being a "land of thousands of cultural relics." Hanoi is the place that best represents Vietnam's socialist style, where you can see the graffiti of revolutionary slogans on the streets, the beautiful girl wearing Ao Dai on the street, roaring motorcycle and the narrow single houses.
Ho Chi Minh City
More people are willing to call it "Saigon". As the largest city in Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh City is full of rich French feelings, known as "Little Paris in the East". Although Ho Chi Minh is developing rapidly, it is not as noisy as other metropolises, and it still maintains the leisure and romance of Vietnam. When you travel between exquisite houses and see the sun shining through the French Platanus, it seems as if you have come to a French town.
Nha Trang is a famous coastal city located on the southeast coast of Vietnam, where has the best beach in Vietnam, stretching for several kilometers. It is the most suitable tourist destination for diving in Vietnam. At present, Nha Trang has become a world-famous resort integrating leisure, entertainment, sports and hot springs. The most popular highlights are Nha Trang four islands tour and the unique mud bath, which allows tourists to fully feel the charm of this small seaside city. In addition, there is the cheapest fresh lobster in Southeast Asia.
Hue is an ancient city that used to be the capital of Vietnam's Nguyen feudal dynasties. It was the ancient capital of three dynasties in Vietnam. It has a long history and culture and well-preserved ancient buildings. It was rated as a "World Cultural Heritage" by the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization.