- Official Country Name: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
- Location: South Asia
- Capital: Kathmandu
- Area Code: +977
- Time Zone: UTC+5:45
- Population: 28.98 million
- Land Area (km²): 147,181
- Languages: Nepali
- Major Tourism Cities: Kathmandu, Patan, Pokhara, Chitwan
Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, referred to as Nepal, is an inland mountainous country in South Asia located in the southern foothills of the Himalayas, bordering China on the north and India on the other three sides. Nepal is backed by the Himalayas, and the Himalayas have become the natural border between Nepal and China.
Eight of the world's top 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest (known in Nepal as Sagamata), are in Nepal, with a height of more than 8,000 meters. Therefore, Nepal attracts a large number of mountaineering enthusiasts all over the world every year.
Nepal has a long history and splendid culture, and many dynasties have left glorious remains for Nepal. From the 6th century BC, some countries had appeared in Nepal, mainly including Kirat (6th century BC to 4th century AD), Licchavi Dynasty (4th century to 13th century AD), Mara (13th century to 1768) and other dynasties. The Licchavi Dynasty was the first recorded dynasty in Nepal and the first Hindu kingdom.
In 1768, Gurkha King Plitvi Narayan Shah unified Nepal and established the Shah Dynasty. In 1814, Nepal was invaded by the British and forced to cede a large territory to British India, whose diplomacy was under British supervision. In 1923, the British recognized Nepal's independence and signed a "Treaty of Permanent Peace" with Nepal. In February 1951, King Tribhuvan promulgated an interim constitution and implemented a constitutional monarchy.
In April 2006, the "Seven-Party Alliance" formed by the main political parties of Nepal and the Communist Party (Maoist) jointly launched the anti-king street movement. The king compromised, announced the restoration of parliament, and returned power to political parties. On May 18, 2006, the Nepalese Parliament decided to abolish the provision of Hinduism as the state religion and declared Nepal a secular country. In August, the "Kingdom of Nepal" was renamed "Nepal".
In May 2008, the Nepalese monarchy was canceled and the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal was formally established. On February 15, 2018, Khadgar Prasad Sharma Oli, Chairman of the Communist Party of Nepal (United Marxist-Leninist), was appointed Prime Minister of Nepal.
Nepal has 14 administrative zones, 5 development zones, and 75 counties. Topographically, northern Nepal is the Himalayas with high mountain clusters, relatively low hills in the middle, and Terai lowlands in the south.
In general, Nepal has a monsoon climate, with a mild climate throughout the year. The climate of Nepal is basically only two seasons, divided into dry season and rainy season.
Every year from October to March of the following year is the dry season (winter), with very little rainfall and a large temperature difference between morning and evening. The morning temperature is about 10℃, and it will rise to 25℃ at noon. The rainy season (summer) is from April to September every year, and the climate in April and May is particularly sultry, with the highest temperature often reaching 36°C. The rainfall from May is often used as a prelude to the rainy season, which lasts until the end of September.
The geography of North and south of Nepal changes greatly, regional climate difference is obvious. Nepal is divided into three climate zones: northern high mountain, central temperate zone and southern subtropical zone. The minimum temperature in the north in winter is -41℃, and the maximum temperature in the south in summer is 45℃.
Nepal is a multi-ethnic, multi-religious, multi-caste, multi-lingual country. 86.2% of residents believe in Hinduism, 7.8% believe in Buddhism, 3.8% believe in Islam, and 2.2% believe in other religions. There are more than 30 ethnic groups in Nepal including Rye, Limbu, Sunuwar, Damang, Magar, Gulong, Sherbah, Niwar and Taru.
The popularity of English in Nepal is average, and there is no problem with English communication in tourist areas. But most areas use Nepali.
Commonly used Nepali languages
- Namaste: Hello
- Cha: Yes
- Chhaina: No
- Dhanyabad: Thank you
- Guhar: Help
- Kati: How much
Nepalese Rupee (रु) is the official currency of Nepal. The international abbreviation "Rs" is commonly used. The subsidized unit is paisa: 1 rupee = 100 paisa. The issuance of currency is the responsibility of Nepal Rastra Bank. The international organization for standardization has designated its standard code name NPR.
- Symbol: रु
- Issuing Bank: Nepal Rastra Bank
- Subunit: paisa
- Banknotes: 1 rupee, 2 rupee, 5 rupee, 10 rupee, 20 rupee, 50 rupee, 100 rupee, 500 rupee, 1000 rupee
- Coins: 1 paisa, 2 paisa, 5 paisa, 10 paisa, 20 paisa, 50 paisa; 1 rupee, 2 rupee
The exchange rate between NPR and other currencies are as below:
1 AUD≈83 NPR; 1 CAD≈89 NPR; 1 CNY≈17 NPR; 1 EUR≈137 NPR;
1 GBP≈137 NPR; 1 JPY≈1.1 NPR; 1 USD≈121 NPR; 1 KRW≈0.1 NPR
Nepal is a tipping country. When dining at a better restaurant, a 10% service charge is usually added to the bill at checkout. If no 10% service charge is added, you can give some tips appropriately. Hiking in Nepal, don't forget to tip the backpack men guides to thank them for their services.
Traffic in Nepal is dominated by roads and aviation. There are about 29,157 kilometers of highways, 56 airports of various types, and about 120 helipads. Nepal's internal transportation is relatively backward, there is no railway, and local public transportation or chartered vehicles are commonly used means of transportation.
The most popular airports among travelers in Nepal are Kathmandu Tribhuvan International Airport and Pokhara Airport. Kathmandu Tribhuvan International Airport is Nepal's only international airport. There is a state-owned Nepal Airlines, six private airlines and a private helicopter company nationwide. Major cities and towns in Nepal are available by air. Nepal has flights to countries and regions such as China, India, Pakistan, Thailand, Bangladesh, Brunei, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, Germany and the United Kingdom.
Nepal shares a border with China's Tibet and India, and many people choose to enter Nepal by land. Tourist buses are the most commonly used intercity transportation for tourists in Nepal, mainly operating in Kathmandu, Pokhara, Chitwan and Bailawa. They have a wide variety of models and prices.
Nepal is a paradise for hikers. Nepal has 8 of the world's highest peaks, among which Annapurna Peaks and Everest are classic hiking areas favorite by hikers. Here, you can see the breathtaking view of the magnificent peaks, enjoy the most spectacular vertical landscape of the four seasons, experience the joy of conquering the mountain and challenge yourself, and measure the wonderfulness of this world with your feet.
►Best Time to Visit Nepal
Every year from October to May the following year is the dry season in Nepal, the climate is bright, the air visibility is high, and it is especially suitable for traveling and performing sports such as gliding and hiking. The best time to hike is October-November and March-April.
►Best Places to Visit Nepal
Kathmandu is the capital of Nepal, and it is also an important tourist city. Kathmandu Valley is the most concentrated place in Nepal's world heritage, mainly including 7 famous world cultural heritages such as Swayambhunath pagoda and Hanuman Dhoka. What to see in Kathmandu? Durbar Square, Temple of Kumari, Bodhnath, Pashupatinath and Swayambhunath are highlights of Kathmandu that you should not miss. If you love outdoor sports, you can set off from Kathmandu to the world-famous climbing route.
Pokhara is located in central Nepal and is a well-known tourist city, known as "Little Switzerland in the East". Paragliding is a beautiful landscape in the sky of Pokhara. As one of the three largest glide destinations in the world, Pokhara is popular with extreme sportsmen for its cheap price. Gliding down from the top of the mountain, you can get a bird's eye view of Pokhara from a new angle. What are the other highlights of Pokhara? Phewa Lake is a famous royal resort in Nepal. Sarangkot is the highest peak in Pokhara and it is also known as the best place to watch snow mountains.