- Official Country Name: भारत गणराज्य, Republic of India, India
- Location: South Asia
- Capital: New Delhi
- Area Code: +91
- Time Zone: UTC+5:30
- Population: 1.3 billion
- Land Area (km²): 2.98 million
- Languages: Hindi
- Major Tourism Cities/Places: Agra, Delhi, Jaipur
The Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गणराज्य), referred to as "India", is located in South Asia and is the largest country in the South Asian subcontinent. India borders Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and China in the northeast, Myanmar in the east, Sri Lanka across the sea in the southeast, and Pakistan in the northwest.
India borders the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west, with a coastline of 5,560 kilometers. It is a unified multi-ethnic country composed of more than 100 ethnic groups. The main ethnic group is the Hindustan ethnic group, accounting for about 46.3% of the total population of the country.
Ancient India is one of the four ancient civilizations. The Indus civilization (mainly located in present-day Pakistan) was born in 2500 BC. Around 1500 BC, the Aryans of Central Asia entered the South Asian subcontinent, conquered the local ancient Indians, set up some small slavery countries, and established a caste system. Vedic religion began to develop into Brahmanism.
In the 4th century BC, the Peacock Dynasty unified India and began to promote Buddhism and spread it outward. Around 188 BC, after the demise of the Peacock Empire, foreigners invaded, and Hinduism and Islam rose. In 1600, the British invaded the Mughal Empire and established the East India Company. After 1757, it gradually became a British colony.
In June 1947, the United Kingdom promulgated the "Mountbatten Plan" and implemented the partition of India and Pakistan. The Indian Dominion was established on August 15 of the same year. On January 26, 1950, the Republic of India announced its establishment and became a member of the Commonwealth. At present, India is one of the fastest growing emerging economies in the world and one of the top ten economies in the world.
The first-level administrative areas in the administrative divisions of India include 28 states (provinces), 6 federal territories, and 1 national capital jurisdiction. Each state has its own democratically elected government, while the federal territories and national capital jurisdiction are managed by the administrative officer appointed by the coalition government. In addition, although India does not own land in Antarctica, it has two scientific bases: Dakshin Gangotri and Maitri base.
India is hot throughout the country, most of which has a tropical monsoon climate, while the Thar Desert in western India has a tropical desert climate. There is a more obvious monsoon in summer and no more obvious monsoon in winter. India's climate is divided into the rainy season (June to October), the dry season (March to May) and the cool season (November to February of the following year). In the winter, it is affected by the Himalayas barrier, and there is no cold current or cold high pressure to affect India.
October to March is the best time to visit India, when is not the rainy season and suitable for travel. However, it is best to visit southeastern India in winter and the highlands in summer.
The languages of India are mainly Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan, South Asian, and Dravidian. The official language of India is Hindi, used by 30% of the population; English had terminated its status as the only official language (same as Hindi) in 1965, but it still retains its status as the "second additional official language". English is also a national general language, mainly used in political and business interactions.
In addition, there are 21 other official languages of ethnic minorities. India has about 2000 languages, 55 of which have their own writing and literature.
In terms of air transport, there are 14 airlines operating scheduled flights, including Air India International and Air India, with 334 aircraft. A total of 65 air transport companies specialize in non-scheduled flights, with 201 aircraft. The routes reach major cities on all continents. Five international airports are located in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Trivandrum. There are 92 domestic airports.
The railway is the largest state-owned sector in India and the main means of transportation. With a total length of 64,015 kilometers, it ranks second in Asia, second only to China's 110,000-kilometer railway, and fourth in the world. Almost anywhere you can think of can be reached by train. India already has a very complete online booking system.
Indian Railways official website: www.indianrail.gov.in
Indian Train Booking website: www.irctc.co.in; www.cleartrip.com
There are many classes of trains, such as Superfast, Fast, Express, Passenger, etc. The ticket selling system are divided into ticket offices and advance sales offices, and some major stations, such as New Delhi, have special offices for foreigners. Buying a ticket at a foreign ticket office or window can avoid crowding at regular Windows, but you have to pay US dollars or provide proof of exchange. Many hotels offer train ticket purchasing services for a fee of 50 rupees per ticket.
Road conditions in India are relatively poor, especially across state roads, so cars should be the auxiliary means of transportation for trains. You can consider taking the bus in places that are not accessible by train, such as Khajuraho. In cities, most people rely on buses to get around.
One of the most interesting things about Indian buses is that the doors are not closed and passengers can get on and off at any time, as long as the speed slows down. When there are too many passengers and people will climb to the roof of the car. The roofs of trains and buses can carry people, which is also a common phenomenon in India.
The Indian rupee (₹) is the official currency of India. The international abbreviation "Rs", "Re" or "INR" is commonly used. The subsidized unit is paise: 1 rupee = 100 paise. The issuance of currency is the responsibility of the Reserve Bank of India. The international organization for standardization has designated its standard code name INR.
- Symbol: ₹
- issuing bank: Reserve Bank of India
- Subunit: paise
- Banknotes: ₹10, ₹20, ₹50, ₹100, ₹200, ₹500, ₹2000
- Coins: ₹1, ₹2, ₹5, ₹10 rupee; ₹10, ₹20, ₹25, ₹50 paise
The exchange rate between INR and other currencies are as below:
1 AUD≈52 INR; 1 CAD≈56 INR; 1 CNY≈10 INR; 1 EUR≈86 INR;
1 GBP≈96 INR; 1 JPY≈0.7 INR; 1 USD≈75 INR; 1 KRW≈0.06 INR
After being colonized by Britain for a long time, India has retained some British traditions, such as tipping culture. Tipping is popular in India, but the size of the tip is low. When you stay in a high-end hotel, you can pay a certain tip at your discretion to the waiter who helps you with your luggage. After dining in the restaurant, you can give a tip according to the quality of service. For example, luggage waiter is generally given to 50-100rs, and ordinary restaurants are generally given to less than 100rs.
India is one of the four ancient civilizations in the world, and once created the splendid Indus civilization. There are many world heritages in India, and Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Ajanta Caves and other attractions are world-famous.
What to see in India? The Taj Mahal is one of the most well-known monuments in India, a world cultural heritage, and was selected as the "New Seven Wonders of the World". People who love history and want to experience the thousand years of Indian history must not miss the Red Fort, Gandhi Mausoleum, Presidential Palace and Parliament Building. Art fans who love to appreciate unique architectural styles must go to Lotus Temple, Ancient Castle, Humayun's Tomb and Jama Mosque. Religious explorers will surely indulge in the Qutub Minar Complex and Birla Mandir.